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Overall, these data contribute to our understanding of flavivirus ecology, modes of transmission by Australian mosquitoes and mechanisms for super-infection interference. Author summary Mosquito-borne flaviviruses include medically significant members such as the dengue viruses, yellow fever virus and Zika virus. These viruses regularly cause outbreaks globally, notably in tropical regions.
The ability of mosquitoes to transmit these viruses to vertebrate hosts plays a major role in determining the scale of these outbreaks. It is essential to assess the risk of emergence of flaviviruses in a given region by investigating the vector competence of local mosquitoes for these viruses. Bamaga virus was recently discovered in Australia in Culex mosquitoes and shown to be related to yellow fever virus.
In this article, we investigated the potential for Bamaga virus to emerge as an arthropod-borne viral pathogen by assessing the vector competence of Cx.
We showed that Bamaga virus could be detected in the saliva of Cx. In addition, we showed that Bamaga virus could interfere with the replication in vitro and transmission in vivo of the pathogenic flavivirus West Nile virus. These data provide further insight on how interactions between viruses in their vector can influence the efficiency of pathogen transmission. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Data Availability: All relevant data are within the manuscript. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Horizontal transmission of these arthropod-borne viruses arboviruses occurs when the virus is ingested by a mosquito whilst it feeds on infected blood from a vertebrate host.
Post ingestion by the mosquito, the virus infects and replicates in the midgut epithelial cells [ 6 , 7 ]. The virus then disseminates from the midgut cells and typically undergoes secondary replication in other tissues, such as fat bodies or neural tissues. Finally, the virus infects the cells of the salivary glands before being released into the salivary secretion when the mosquito probes a vertebrate host during feeding [ 6 , 7 ].
Several barriers to infection within the mosquito must be overcome before transmission of an arbovirus including the midgut infection and escape barriers, and the salivary infection and escape barriers [ 8 , 9 ].
Vector-competence studies aim to determine if a mosquito species can transmit an arbovirus, by evaluating if and how well the virus can overcome the infection, dissemination and transmission barriers in those mosquitoes [ 10 — 17 ]. These laboratory-based studies producing vectorial capacity data are crucial to determine whether these viruses pose a threat of an epidemic transmission by local mosquito species, or simply to better understand the ecological niches in which these viruses belong.
Bamaga virus BgV is a flavivirus which was recently isolated from archival samples of Cx. Three gene copies were annotated to gustatory and odorant receptor 24 GPRgr The remaining six were annotated to olfactory receptor S14 Table. Unique genes with annotation Of the estimated 1, genes unique to An.
Most of these genes were mapped to a number of functions across different KEGG classes. Among these unique genes, 96 genes were mapped to pathways related to environmental information processing signal transduction and membrane transport.
There were 90 An. Besides, 74 of these unique genes were annotated to functions related to cellular processes. A total of genes were annotated to functions related to genetic information processing i. A total of 57 genes were annotated to functions related organismal systems. Similar to An. There were genes annotated to functions related to environmental information processing.
A total of genes were annotated to metabolic functions, 68 unique genes were mapped to cellular processes and genes were linked to genetic information processing. In addition, there were 73 genes annotated to functions related to organismal systems.
Interestingly, for both species, the organismal system-related annotations revolved around development of vital organ systems, notably nerve conduction, circadian rhythm, oogenesis and immune system.
Discussion Genome assembly Despite being smaller than the genomes of Ae. Of note, the genome of An. This is probably one of the reasons for the much larger genome size for An. Indeed, high repeat rate was also found in the large draft genome of Ae.
The content of non-coding RNA genes in An. For instance, An. In addition, An. Interestingly, miRNAs were found to be involved in anopheline immune defense against Plasmodium oocyst development [ 61 ]. It would be interesting to conduct further studies on the interactions between An.
Of note, the archived genome of An. This may be due to several factors. Firstly, the difference in insert library preparation between the two studies may contribute to the different assembly outcomes. In this study, size insert libraries of different insert sizes were constructed from DNA of one mosquito.
For the previously archived An. Usage of pooled sample for genome sequencing is an acceptable and valuable approach. However, it yields high rates of error that must be corrected. Such corrections result in loss of large amount of data. Besides, the lower sequencing quality by the previous work on An.
Importantly, we also aligned the previously published An. By setting the An. In addition, we performed k-mer analysis on the published An. The peak of the mer distribution was 75, with the total k-mer count of 49,,,, yielding estimated genome size of Thus, we deduced that the published genome may have heterozygosis.
The k-mer analysis and genome size estimation for the An. To summarize, k-mer analysis estimated the An. Via This fine map genome covered Based on the analytical comparisons, the previously published An. Indeed, the An. Both locations are more than km apart with a number of mountain ranges in between, segregating the population pools of An.
The geographical isolation impedes gene flows and interactions between the two populations, which results in independent divergence of these An. With the availability of archived genomes, such small but notable differences can be detected.
It would be interesting to study the cross-mating compatibility between these An. Phylogenetic analyses In terms of evolutionary study, the phylogenetic tree constructed from this study fits well with the subgenus classification of the recruited mosquitoes.
The much older Anopheles Anopheles subgenus shared a closer evolutionary relationship with Ae. Methods We used data from a multi-centric prospective demonstration study, conducted from March to December in 18 sub-district level TB programme units TUs in India and covering a population of 8. Here, using data from this study, we used logistic regression to identify association between risk factors and TB and Rifampicin-Resistant TB among symptomatics enrolled in the study.
Results We find that male gender; history of TB treatment; and adult age compared with either children or the elderly are risk factors associated with high TB detection amongst symptomatics, across the TUs.
These partners with whom the authors partnered in no way contributed to the study and would not be benefited by the results of the study. As such this did not alter the authors' adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials and there is no conflict of interest to the publication of this article. The primary study data would be made available in the supplementary table as required.
However, pediatric TB cases have no less risk of rifampicin resistance as compared with adults OR 1. Similarly, risk of rifampicin resistance among both the genders was the same. These patterns applied across the study sites involved. Notably in Mumbai, amongst those patients with microbiological confirmation of TB, female patients showed a higher risk of having MDR-TB than male patients. Conclusion Our results cast fresh light on the characteristics of symptomatics presenting for care who are most likely to be microbiologically positive for TB, and for rifampicin resistance.
The challenges posed by TB control are complex and multifactorial: evidence from diverse sources, including retrospective studies such as that addressed here, can be invaluable in informing future strategies to accelerate declines in TB burden.
Background Tuberculosis TB is one of the worlds deadliest communicable diseases. Of the estimated 9. While most cases of TB are curable with cost-effective combination chemotherapy, multi-drug-resistant MDR TB is becoming an increasing challenge, accounting for an estimated , cases globally in , of whom only , were detected.
Drug resistance surveys in several states suggest that the prevalence of MDR TB in India is 23 percent among new cases and percent among reinfection cases . Typically in India and elsewhere, patients referred to the national TB programme for diagnosis are those showing symptoms that are suggestive, but not necessarily definitive, for TB disease symptoms such as chronic cough, fever and weight loss. These patients, presumptive TB symptomatics, are offered microbiological testing for TB, most often using smear microscopy: an affordable and well-established diagnosis, that nonetheless can miss upto half of TB cases.
Detection of drug resistance offers additional challenges, being a resource- and time- intensive procedure that is currently offered only to specific risk groups, primarily those with a history of TB treatment. Given such limitations, therefore, there has been considerable uncertainty around the predictors of TB and MDR-TB in the symptomatic population.